SOCIALIST IDEAS OF THE PREAMBLE
What is Socialism?
Socialism stands for common ownership and collective control of the means of production, distribution and exchange.
There is no private enterprise. No private property.
The state manages the means of production – land, industry etc.
Because it was very successful in the Soviet Union Planning has become a part of Socialism.
Scientific Socialism is another for Marxism.
Fabian Socialism – another variety. It believed in gradual and slow introduction of Socialism with the help of Parliament and Democracy. It was born in England.
Most Indian socialists were regarded Fabian socialists.
The Fabians believed in parliamentary action.
Fabian Socialism may be called collective socialism. Collective Socialism means society is superior to the individual. Community has the right to control everything.
At the Avadi session in1955 Congress adopted a resolution to establish a socialistic pattern of society. Nehru said we are not establishing socialism. It is only socialistic pattern. Nehru stood for mixed economy.
Nagpur Session : passed a resolution to establish socialism. What the Congress wanted was that state the State should enter the field of industry, trade and commerce. Production should gradually increase. Poverty must end. There should be equitable distribution of national wealth.
Nehru was interested in both private and public enterprise. Indira Gandhi was more collectivist. For this she adopted the slogan Garibi Hato.
The 42nd Amendment introduced the word socialist in the preamble. The word socialist was not there formerly.
It introduced Article 39A which comes under Directive Principles. It spoke of free legal aid to the poor and wanted steps taken to ensure social justice to all.
Art. 43A (also Directive Principles) –was introduced to ensure participation of workers in the management of industry. Workers must also share in the profit.
The 44th amendment abolished the Fundamental Right to property (Art 31). Now it is only a legal right. (Art 300 A)
The 42nd Amendment inserted clause (2)in Art. 38. The State shall strive to remove inequalities of income not only among individuals but also among groups of people.
The welfare principles and socialist principles in our constitution are one and the same.
Art. 39 – ensures adequate means of livelihood, ownership of the natural resources of the community should be used to common good, prevent concentration of wealth, provide equal pay for equal work, protect child and youth for exploitation and material abandonment, prevent people out of economic necessity to enter occupations unsuited to their age or health.
Art. 42 – just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief
Art. 43 – assures a living wage and the right to work. Free and compulsory education to children.
A test will be given in the class. You may post your doubts or views and you can have a discussion
among yourself. The discussions will be moderated by one of our Professors.