29 thoughts on “84. Discussion on Motivation continued 2

  1. 1.In his work The Functions of the Executive Chester Barnard speaks of
    depersonalization of personal conflict. Developing a Social Systems Approach he defines organization as “a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more persons”. He takes into account all factors – rational and non-rational factors in determining the tasks of executive. He points out that individuals in an organization should be willing to contribute their best efforts. They must be willing to surrender the control of their personal conduct to Authority and this involves depersonalization of personal conflict. What do you understand by depersonalization of conflict?

  2. 2. A very important idea of Barnard is the need for integrating formal organizations with informal organizations (like Citizen’s groups, NGOs like Environmental groups etc .,). He defines a formal organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities or courses of two or more persons. In his opinion, an organization exists when the following three conditions are fulfilled: (i) there are persons able to communicate with each other; (ii) they are willing to contribute to the action; and (iii) they attempt to accomplish a common purpose. But Informal organizations precede the formal organizations.How do informal organizations operate?

  3. 3.According to Bernard, communication techniques form a vital part of any organization as the absence of a suitable technique of communication would impede the establishment of a common purpose. If communication with informal organizations did not exist the formal organizations would dominate society and this ultimately leads to break down of communication between the Government and the people. What effect does non-communication of mis-communication have on motivation?

  4. 4.Barnard says a formal organization or Department functions according to rules. If t is to be effective, people must accept its decisions. How far does motivation lad to such acceptance?

  5. 5.Barnard speaks of ‘Zone of Indifference’. By this he means those orders which are unquestionably acceptable. The Zone of indifference depends on the degree to which people feel that their burdens and sacrifices are less than what obedience to authority involves. Can you give examples of the zone of indifference?
    6.Barnard rejects the concept of hierarchical unity of command from top to down. He advocates what he calls ‘acceptance theory of authority’ or ‘bottom-up authority’. Can you elaborate on this point?

  6. 6. Functions of the Executive. Barnard lists the functions of the executive as follows. It must communicate with the people effectively and intelligently. It must see that the individuals of the origination carry out their tasks properly. For this purpose it must spell out the goals of the organization clearly. He says that ‘Material incentives are ineffective beyond the subsistence level’. Examples of non -financial incentives are: an opportunity to acquire power and distinction, development of pride in the work they do , proper and pleasing environment for work and a social atmosphere of belongingness.` Can you elaborate?

  7. 7. If the executive wants to be effective, it must exhibit high order of responsible leadership. In this connection comment on the technological ability and soft skills required in an executive.

  8. 8.The Executive must achieve Organizational Equilibrium. Individual members of the organization must feel that the Executive also is putting in the required amount and quality of effort. A Dynamic Executive will take note of the dynamic nature of society and meet its aspirations. Can you explain?

  9. 9. The Executive can attain organizational equilibrium not only through logical and rational methods but also keep in mind the emotional and non-rational feelings of the employees. Illustrate.

  10. 10.Conclusion
    We may end our note with the words of W. Wolf about Barnard’s contributions: “The book (Functions of the Executive) is a sociology of management. Its style of writing is for social scientists, not for practitioners. Bernard believed that the field of management was lacking in concepts and was clouded by ambiguous and even erroneous thinking. In a sense, he hoped that the book Functions of the Executive would set things right and guide the social scientists to more realistic studies of organization and management.” Barnard was one of the earliest Behaviouralists. The seeds of behavioural approach can be seen in his celebrated work ‘The Functions of the Executive’. He was probably the earliest scholar to realize the importance of human element in the organization. He, therefore, rightly belongs to the human relations school. But he may be said to be the initiator of the Behavioural approach within the Human relations School. He was greatly influenced by Pareto, Mayo and other faculty members at Harvards

  11. 11. Let us next take up another theory of motivation: the theory of Douglas McGregor: Theory of X and Y developed in is books: The Human side of the Enterprise (1960) and The Professional Manager(1964). What according to Douglas is the importance of control and coordination in an organization? How does it create order out of diverse interests?

  12. 12. What are the views of Mc Gregor and Chris Argyris (Personality and Organization: the conflict between the system and he Individual) on the significance of employee behavior? How are the philosophies of the superior relevant? Explain the Theories of X and Y.

  13. 13. Question asked.
    2. Analyze McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor’s message has become more relevant and more important Substantiate your answer. 2007

  14. 14. What are the Theoretical assumptions of McGregor?

    McGregor studied the classical ways of coercion and challenged the validity of the assumptions underlying an exercise of authority based on mere coercion. He remarks “the theoretical assumptions, which the management holds about controlling its human resources, determine the whole character of the enterprise.” Explain.

    1. According to Mc Gregor theory Y act as give and take policy, where supervisor has to be positive manner so thatswhy he can understand employees. When ever employees are not feeling well let them free, dont presurise them to do the work.You have to let them free on some specific reasons. At the same time ensure to motivate them to complete their work on the time. Here in such situations relation or understanding between employees and supervisor get into place and employees may do their work in such a way where they can make their boss fell happy by their work.

    1. Theory Y states that when an organisation complete its work, its a fault of management not a fault of employees. Here when management and employees have a good relation automatically organisations and individual employee come to high place.

  15. strategies in managing differences( Mc Gregor)

    1) divide and rule
    2) suppression of differences
    3) working through of differences

  16. (QU 22)
    Theory Y good for both the organization and the individual

    Theory Y is based on the need for integration of the employees with the goals of the organisation.Theory X leads to the strategies of divide and rule and suppression of differences.Theory Y leads to working through differences and instead of treating the employees in a hostile manner help them to realise their fullest potential. this is good for both the organisation and the individual.

  17. (Qu21).Theory X is based on the scalar principle

    Theory X is based on a cynical view of human nature control through coercion ( the old traditional view of direction and control, assuming that men dislike work)

  18. 13. Question asked.
    2. Analyze McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. Do you agree with the view that with every passing year, McGregor’s message has become more relevant and more important Substantiate your answer. 2007

    McGregor challenged the classical ways of coercion and the views of traditional superiors–>condemned coercive methods–>challenged the validity of the assumptions based mere coercion–>He remarks ” the theoritical assumptions,which the management holds about controlling its human resources,determine the whole character of the enterprise.”–>wrong ideas about human behaviour will lead you no where,whatever yourtalents may be–>must know how to manage people–>McGregor develops two concepts called Theory X and Theory Y –> Theory X cynical and belives only in coercion–>Theory Y is based on an optimistic assesssment of human nature and advocates motivation. McGregor advocates management by integration and self control.

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