159. Comprehension Test on Behaviouralism

Comprehension test on Behaviouralism

Answers to questions will be given in the class to those who have take the test

I. Behaviouralism as a Political Approach

I. Prior to the “Behavioralist revolution”, political science being a science at all was disputed. ]Critics saw the study of politics as being primarily qualitative and normative, and claimed that it lacked a scientific method necessary to be deemed a science.  Behavioralists would use strict methodology and empirical research to validate their study as a social science. The behavioralist approach was innovative because it changed the attitude of the purpose of inquiry, moving toward research supported by verifiable facts  During its rise in popularity in the 1960s and 70s, behavioralism challenged the realist and liberal approaches, which the behavioralists called “traditionalism,” and other studies of political behavior that was not based on fact.

Study the above passage and answer the following questions

1.The Behavioural Movement could be called a revolution for all the following reasons except

A. It exposed the purely speculative concepts of traditional Political Science.

B. It disputed the many value oriented judgments of Traditional Political science

C. It led to the gradual disappearance of Political Thought from Plato onwards

D. It led to valuable research in Political Science

2.Behaviouarlism pointed out the chief defect of the Traditional approach as

A. a historical analysis in Political Science

B. Scientific approach

C. Quantification


II. To understand political behaviuor, behavioralism uses the following methods: sampling, interviewing, scoring and scaling and statistical analysis.

Study the above passage and answer the following question

1.The main techniques of Behaviouralism are all the following except

A. Participant Observation

B. Study the classical political theories

C. Random sampling

D. Quantification

III. Meaning of behavioralism

David Easton was the first to differentiate behavioralism from behaviorism in the 1950s. In the early 1940s, behaviorism itself was referred to as a behavioral science and later referred to as behaviorism. However, Easton sought to differentiate between the two disciplines

Behavioralism was not a clearly defined movement for those who were thought to be behavioralists. It was more clearly definable by those who were opposed to it, because they were describing it in terms of the things within the newer trends that they found objectionable. So some would define behavioralism as an attempt to apply the methods of natural sciences to human behavior. Others would define it as an excessive emphasis upon quantification. Others as individualistic reductionism. From the inside, the practitioners were of different minds as what it was that constituted behavioralism.  And few of us were in agreement.

Study the above passage and answer the following questions:

1.Which one of the  following statements is wrong?

A. Morton Kaplan was the first to develop the Behaviouralist approach in Political Science

B. We larn of the main features of the Behaviouralist approach from the Traditonalists

C. Behavouralism was an attempt to apply the methods of Natural science to Political science.

D Behavouralism tried to apply statistical methods to political Science.

2. Behavouralism may be described as

A. individualistic reductionism

B. Scientism

C. rational Positivism

D. all the above

IV. Easton further defined eight “intellectual foundation stones” of behavioralism .

A, Regularities – The generalization and explanation of regularities.

B. Commitment to Verification – The ability to verify ones generalizations.

C. Techniques – An experimental attitude toward techniques.

D. Quantification – Express results as numbers where possible or meaningful.

E .Values – Keeping ethical assessment and empirical explanations distinct.

F. Systemization – Considering the importance of theory in research.

G. Pure Science – Deferring to pure science rather than applied science.

H. Integration – Integrating social sciences and value.

Study the above passage and answer the following

1.Behaviouralisn based itself on

A. the constants in human behaviour

B. The conversations of the past in the Classics

C. Verification and proofs

D. Keeping values and facts separate

2. The chief tenets of Behaviouralism are

A. Systematic study of facts

B. An integrated approach and cross flows of knowledge

C. Emphasis on values

D. Making Politics a Pure science

V. Objectivity and Value-Neutrality

According to David Easton, behavioralism sought to be “analytic, not substantive, general rather than particular, and explanatory rather than ethical. In this, the theory seeks to evaluate political behavior without “introducing any ethical evaluations” Rodger Beehler cites this as “their insistence on distinguishing between facts and values.”

Study the above passage and answer the following

1.Behaviouralism aimed at

*A. Systematic Analysis instead of vague theorizing

B. Particular and not general principles

C. Ethical analysis instead of mere explanations

D. Value based facts

VI. Criticism

The approach has come under fire from both conservatives and radicals for the purported value-neutrality. Conservatives see the distinction between values and facts as a way of undermining the possibility of political philosophy. Neal Riemer believes behavioralism dismisses “the task of ethical recommendation”because behavioralists believe “truth or falsity of values (democracy, equality, and freedom, etc.) cannot be established scientifically and are beyond the scope of legitimate inquiry.”

Christian Bay believed behavioralism was a pseudo-political science and that it did not represent “genuine” political research. Bay objected to empirical consideration taking precedence over normative and moral examination of politics.

Behavioralism initially represented a movement away from “naive empiricism,” but has been criticized as an approach has been criticized for “naiive scientism.”, radical critics believe that the separation of fact from value makes the empirical study of politics impossible

From a study of the above passage you can conclude

1.A. Critics have described it as an attempt to build Science where it is not possible. Human behaviour is not always constant nr always predictable

B. What is true under one environment may not be true under a different environment

C. It is wrong to ignore the normative elements  in  human behaviour  since it is the nature of man to believe and love what he likes

D, All the above

2. The Behaviouralst approach has been criticized on the grounds

A. Conservatives  denounce the distinction between values and facts  since it ignores political philosophy.

B. Neal Riemer condemns behavioralist  dismissal of truth or falsity of values of  democracy, equality, and freedom, etc..

C. Christian Bay believed behavioralism was a pseudo-political science since it gives precedence over normative and moral examination of politics.

D. all the above

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