10 thoughts on “117. Evolution of P.A. Part III

  1. Political Terms
    APARTHEID Policy of racial segregation practiced by the South African Government.
    ADJOURNMENT A motion moved by a member of a legislature to adjourn consideration of the issues in hand for discussing a matter of urgent public importance.
    AMNESTY Grant of pardon or exemption from prosecution to political importance.
    ARMISTICE Temporary cessation of hostilities pending formal negotiations for peace.
    APPEASEMENT The policy of gratifying one’s enemy with concession and special grants by sacrificing even principles.
    AUTONOMY Power to control internal affairs.
    BILATERAL AGREEMENT An agreement between two countries.
    BLOCKADES Imposing closure of ports and waterways to prevent ships from reaching or leaving it.
    BOLSHEVISM The doctrine of Proletarian Dictatorship as propounded by Lenin.
    BOURGEOISE Capitalist class in Marxian terminology.
    BUFFER STATE A small neutral state between two big states.
    BY-ELECTION A mid term election to fill a seat rendered vacant.
    CASTING VOTE A vote casting of which decides the tie.
    CAUCUS A powerful group of party.
    CHARGED AFFAIRS The senior most diplomat after the head of the mission, officiating in his absence.
    COALITION Combination of two or more parties with the purpose of forming a composite government.

    CONFEDERATION Alliance of nations for some specific purpose our retaining the respective individual nation sovereignty.
    COLD WAR The state of ideological or wordy warfare between two countries or blocks.
    ENVOY A diplomatic emissary accredited to the country and holding position below that of an ambassador.
    FIFTH COLUMN An anti-national clique of spies and saboteurs.
    FLOOR CROSSING The act of changing political loyalty by a person or a group.
    FRANCHISE Right to cast vote in the public elections.
    GALLUP POLL An opinion poll-may be with the help of interview.
    GENOCIDE Intention to destroy wholly or in part a religious, ethnic or political group.
    GHERAO Encircling a person and rending him incapable of doing anything till he/she concedes demands.
    GLOSNOST Means openness. Term used for reforms introduced in Russian society by M.Gorbachov.
    HABEAS CORPUS A type of a writ issued by a High Court or Supreme court against illegal detention of a person.
    HOT LINE A direct telephone link between the White House and Kremlin established in 1963.
    IMPEACHMENT Trial by the Parliament.
    LOBBYING Exercising influence or pressure on members of the legislative bodies in the lobby for

    LOK PAL An official appointed by the President to investigate public complaints against ministers and high officials.
    MANIFESTO A declaration of political party about its policies and programmes given at the time of elections.
    NATIONALISATION The act of taking business undertakings an institutions by the state and controlling them.
    NAXALITE A movement violent in character believing in Maoism: the term was first used for the peasants of Naxalbari (West Bengal) who rose against the landlords demanding land for the landless.
    NEW DEAL The name given to the policy of Franklin D.Roosevelt to revive and boost American economy .
    ORDINANCE An Act or decree promulgated by the Head of State in an emergency or when the legislative body is not in session.
    PERESTROIKA Used for Gorbachov’s move to restructure political and economical structure of the Russian society.
    PLEBISCITE Voting on regional or national issue.
    PERSONALITY CULT Too much adulation for a ruler or a political figure.
    PRIVY PURSE Yearly allowances granted to the princes of Indian states after the merger of their states with the Indian Union. (New these purses are abolished).

    PRIVILEGE MOTION A motion moved by a legislator drawing attention of the House towards a matter involving breach of privilege of the House or any of its members.
    REFERENDUM People’s verdict on some constitutional amendment and some other legislative issue of controversial nature.
    SECULARISM Affirmation in all the faiths, showing no official patronage to any religions or religions.
    SANCTIONS Penalty or reward imposed for disobedience or obedience attached to the law.
    SOCIALISM Control of production and means of distribution in the hands of the State.
    STATUTE Law made by the Parliament, enshrined in the statue book, which are binding on al subjects, of a particular country.
    SUFFRAGE Right of voting in political elections.
    SELF-DETERMINATION Right of a nation deciding its own form of government, its political destiny or independence.
    TERRITORIAL WATERS Areas of the sea up to 12 km measured from the low water mark of the coast and within the executive control of an adjacent State.
    UNICAMERAL A legislature having only one House.
    VETO Right to reject any resolution or enactment passed by the legislature.

    The Union cabinet of India on 1
    March 2012 approved the proposed
    changes in the Motor Vehicle Act 1988,
    which includes longer jail terms and
    higher fines for repeat traffic violations.
    The new act has a provision of 500
    rupees fine if one does not wear seat
    belt and helmet or jumps a red light.
    Anybody caught using mobile phone
    while driving will be fined. Repeat
    traffic offences like jumping red lights or
    not using seat belts and helmets will
    attract fine between 500 rupees to 1500
    rupees. Crossing the speed limits could
    attract a fine of 1000 rupees, if the
    offence is committed first time. In case
    the offence is repeated, the penalty
    could be as much as 5000 rupees.
    In case, the same offender violates
    the traffic rules again, the fines will
    multiply. The new act also provides that
    the offence of drunk driving will be
    awarded with a punishment of a twoyear
    jail term and a fine of 5000 rupees
    or both. The fines are increased in the
    new act with the objective of targeting
    the major causes of accidents on Indian
    roads which are- speeding, use of cell
    phones, not wearing seatbelts and
    helmet and drunk driving. Motor
    Vehicle Act 1988 governs licensing rules
    and offences on Indian roads. An
    expert committee appointed by
    ministry of road transport and
    highways suggested the changes.

  3. 1. Robert Dhal opposed to mere scientism. He said human behaviour is governed by different aspects. There might be several reasons for an individual not performing his tasks efficiently.

    2. Dhal emphasizes on aspects of human behaviour. Human behaviour in its diverse aspects must be kept in mind. Machine concept must be given up and human relation approach must be taken up.

    3. Dhal said that public administration must become a broad based discipline and not merely focus on processes and techniques. He said that mere intellectual pursuit yields only narrow results. It can become broad based by extending the discipline to varying historical, sociological, economic and other conditioning factors.

    4. Dhal said that public administration must become a broad based discipline that is practices practiced in one place must also be practiced in other places without any difficulty. He studied the public administration in the United States and commented that the mode of administration here was different from other developing countries. Workers had different attitude towards work compared to developing countries. Hence Dhal wanted public administration to be uniform in all places going beyond national boundaries and crossing every cultural and social barrier.

  4. 1)
    Effort to create a scientific study of public administration has led to
    the formation of universal laws. But as the behavioralism suggested,
    the acts of the administrators are subjected to social and psychological factors. Decision making which is the heart of Public Administration, will involve fact and value components. The value component depends completely on the individual and can not be scientifically measured. Science cannot study the “normative” considerations which cannot be excluded from administrative problems. Also, administration depends on the “social setting” in which relations among public administrators, between public administrators and the common people, between public
    administrators and policy makers matter most. Scientific approach can not formulate laws stating which kind of relations hold “true” or “false”. The answer for this kind of problem can only be “good” or “bad” depending on whether the policies have been successful or not.

    Thus science which tries to answer everything in terms of facts (True/false) can not be completely relied upon to formulate the principles of public administration.


    Dahl emphsized the environmental effects on administrative behavior.
    He belived that public adminstration cannnot escape effects of national
    psychology and political, social and cultural environment in which he develops. Hence he suggested cross-cultural studies i.e., comparitive studies to discover principle of public administration.

    Dahl suggests that public adminstration should not focus on the
    narrowly defined knowledge and techniques and process of a particular
    locus or focus, but should extend to varying historical, sociological,
    geographical, economical and other conditioning factors and making itself
    a broad bsaed discipline.


    The demand for a scientific study of public administration with emphasis
    on cross-cultural studies can not be limited to a particular nation, instead
    formulation of general principle should include diversity of nations.

  5. 1.
    “A Science of Public Administration might proceed along establishing a basic hypothesis then stating ends honestly.”

    * The traditional science of administration was not able to deal with values in Public Administration. Dispute about ends and difficulties in distinguishing between “ends” and “means” raise value questions that should be made explicit, not disguised under the banner of scientific neutrality.

    * Scientific management, excluded normative considerations, excluded factors of human behavior, and ignored the social setting of administration.

    * The more limited principles of the role of Public Administration is handicapped by the three basic problems of values, the individual personality, and the social framework.


    * The need to take into account normative considerations, human behavior and sociological factors while defining the parameters of Public Administration.

    * The environmental effects on administrative behavior.

    * The Public Administrators involvement in both “ends” and “means”, making adherence to technical efficiency logically and ethically problematic.


    * The comparative aspects of Public Administration have largely been ignored; and as long as the study of Public Administration is not comparative, claims for a ‘Science of Public Administration’ sound rather hollow.

    * Emphasized the need of a ‘Science of Public Administration’ in the sense of a body of generalized principles independent of their peculiar national setting.

  6. 1.Robert Dhal ment the frequent impossibility of excluding normative consideration from the problems of public administration scientific mean to achive efficiency must be found on some clarification of end.

    2. A mere emphasis as on the scientific approach does is not enough. Ends must also be kept in mind.Human behaviour in its diverse aspects must be kept in mind. It is better we give up a machine concept and give attention to the human relations aspect.

    3.Dhal said that the study of public administration inevitably must become a much more broadly based discipline, resting not on a narrowly defined knowledge of techniques and processes but rather extending to the varying historical, sociological, economic and other conditioning factors .

    4,Dhals commented on the public administration inevitable must become a much more broadly based discipline resting not on a narrowly defined knowledge of technique and processes but rather extending to the varying historical, sociological, economic and other conditioning factors and efforts have been expended so far is to developing countries in a bid to establishing proposition about administration behaviour which transcend national boundaries.

  7. 1. Robert Dahl in his Essay “The Science of Public Administration : Three Problems” emphasizes on the three concepts, which are:
    i) Scientific means to achieve efficiency should be found
    ii) To embrace whole psychological man
    iii) Administration is a broad based discipline, should not be based upon narrow principles.
    iv) Emphasized on trans-national and cross-cultural administrative behaviour.

  8. 1) Robert A. Dahl is opposed to mere scientism because in his view means and ends in public administration have to be scientifically studied. Only scientific rules, norms, procedure cannot be used alone. The first problem in his essay “The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems” . He mentioned that the problem raises from the frequent impossibility of excluding normative considerations from the problems of public administration. Earlier focus was to find scientific means to achieve efficiency. Dahl argued that scientific means should be found on some classification of

    2) Dahl emphasized on three aspect of public administration
    i) Both Means and Ends are important
    ii) Importance of Human Relation
    iii) Broader base to public administration instead of concentrating on technique and processes. Also transcend national boundary.

    3) He emphasized on the broader study of public administration with respect to varying historical,
    sociological, economics and other condition in factors. He also suggested expanding the study in the developing countries.

    4) He wanted public administration to transcend national boundary by trying to the study of public administration in the developing countries in a bid to establishing propositions about administrative behaviour.

  9. 1) Dahl expressed reservation on over reliance on standard solutions for various issues of Public Administration. He believed while addressing the issue various parameters must be taken into consideration,various solutions to a given problem must be thought of , and not just merely relying on Stand ard solution.He also believed the heart of PA (ie DM) will be lost by mere scientism in PA.

    2) He emphasized on embracing or taking into account the whole psychological man and not just considering them as machines.

    3) Dahl expressed in his essay the need of making the study of PA broad based , he emphasized on taking into account various other parameters such as varying historical , sociological economic factors and merely relying or having over dependence on knowledge of techniques

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