Population Dynamics by Navya

Population dynamics

Population dynamics is that branch of life sciences that deals with age and life composition of population. It also seeks to study the factors underlying the changes in population composition. In specific it sheds light on how birth and death rates affect population.

Population problem has become one of the serious problems of India. India is the second largest populated country in the world next to china. According to 2001 census the Population of India is 102.8 crores 7 it has been further increased to 121 crores in 2011. In fact India is having 16.7 5 of the world Population with only 2.4 % of the worlds area. Every 6th person in the world is Indian. At present in India a baby is born in every one and half second, 40 babies per mi9nute, and 55,000 per day. Every year 1.8 crores of Population is added to our total Population which is equal to the total Population of Australia. Between 1999 & 2011 about 18 crore of Population has been increased in India which is equal to the total population of Brazil. India has three and half times more Population than America. If our Population increases at this rate, it would be 135 crores by 2021 & 165 Crores by 2051. Perhaps at that time India would become the first country in the world in Population. We can study the growth of India’s Population through the following table.

India’s Population Growth Since 1901 (in crores)

Census Years Total Population
1901 23.8
1911 25.2
1921 25.1
1931 27.9
1941 31.9
1951 36.1
1961 43.9
1971 54.8
1981 68.4
1991 84.4
2001 102.8
2011 121


From the above table it is clear that India’s Population actually decreased by 1 million between 1911 & 1921, but it increased continuously after 1921. So 1921 is called the “year of great divide”. Further India’s Population increased at a lesser rate up to 1951, but thereafter it increased at a rapid rate. At present India’s population is increasing at an annual rate of 1.6%. But in England it is 0.3 %, in America 0.7%, in France 0.5%, Japan 0.4% & in Germany it is only 0.02%.

Theory of demographic transition

According to the theory of demographic transition, every country passes sthrough demographic transition.

Stage 1; high birth rate and high death rate

Satge2; high birth rate and low death rate

Stage 3; low birth rate and low death rate

India is in the second stage of demographic transition.

Indian broad demographic features;

  1. Population growth was negative during 1911-21{minus 0.03}. The influenza epidemic of 1918-19 killed almost 5% of the Indian population.
  2. India’s population size was 102 crores in 2001{84.63 crores in 1991, 68.52 crores in 1981census and now 121 crores in 2011 }
  3. Population growth rate of India during 2001-2011 was 2.4%per annum. Where as in 1991-2001 was 2.15 per annum and 2.25% per annum during 1971-81.
  4. As per the child marriage restraint act 1978, the minimum age of marriage is 21 years for men and 18 years for women.
  5. Sex ratio in India has improved in 2011 compared to 2001, 1991, where as the 1991ncensus has worsened as compared to 1981 census.
  6. The birth rate is highest in UP and lowest in Sikkim.
  7. The death rate is highest in Orissa and lowest in Arunachal Pradesh.
  8. The life expectancy is highest in Kerala and lowest in Assam.
  9. The literacy rate is highest in Kerala and lowest in Bihar.
    1. The female literacy rate is highest in Kerala and lowest in Rajasthan.
    2. Male literacy rate is highest in Lakshadweep and lowest in Bihar.
    3. In India, percentage of urban population is 31.16% (2011 census)

The family by choice and not by chance is the aim of family planning in India. The first country to adopt the family in the world is India. The important phases of family planning are listed below.

  1. During 1950’s India adopted clinical approach, where the emphasis was on research and setting up central and state level organizations.
  2. During 1960’s clinical approach was supplemented by extension approach.
  3. Fully fledged department of family planning was created in 1966.
  4. Cafeteria approach was followed wherein the acceptors had the freedom to adopt any of the contraceptive methods offered.
  5. In 1966-69 family planning programme was made target oriented.
  6. New population policy, announced in 1976 (V Plan) which sought to integrate family planning with health, maternity and child health care and nutrition services.


Composition of India’s Population

Age Composition

The study of age composition is helpful in determining the proportion of the labour force in the total population. The age composition of population at any time is the result of past trends in fertility, mortality and migration.

Percentage distribution of India’s population by age groups


Age Group

60 and above




































Thus three important points can be noted in regard to the age composition of India’s population .They are,

  1. India is a young nation in the literal sense of the term. More than half of the Indian population consists of young people.
  2. The age distribution indicates that every one person, on an average, has to earn for him and for one dependent also. This is because the dependency ratio is high in India.
  3. With the fall in the birth rate, the age structure of population is likely to change. That is, 1. Dependency ratio is likely to decrease. 2, the proportion of the working population is likely to increase

Life expectancy

Life expectancy or expectation of life refers to the average life of the inhabitants of a nation .In other words, the number of years for which people of a country expect to live at the time of birth is the average life expectancy of that country.

Life expectancy at birth in India in years

























Crude Birth and Death Rates

Birth rate and death rate have been considered as the two important demographic statistics on which the rate of growth of population of a country depends. Crude birth rate refers to the number of births per 1000 population during a year and crude death rate refers to the number of deaths per 1000 population during a year. The difference between the birth rate and death rate measures the growth rate of population.

The following table illustrates the crude birth and death rates since 1951.

Year Crude Birth rate (per 1000 population) Crude Death rate (per 1000 population)
1951 40.8 25.1
1981 33.9 12.5
1991 29.5 9.8
2001 25.4 8.4
2010 22.1 7.2

Infant Mortality Rate

Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children dying before they reach their first birthday per 1000 children born during a year. The infant mortality rate in India is calculated as a ratio of the number of deaths among the 1000 born children before they reach their first birthday.

The infant mortality rate in India was as high as 204 at the beginning of the 20th century. But there has been a marked fall in this rate during the last eleven decades. Presently it is at forty seven per 1000 children born in 2011. The following table illustrates the infant mortality rate in India since 1951.


Infant Mortality Rate in India






Infant Mortality Rate






Indian Population at a Glance

Indicators 1991 2001 2011
Birth Rate/Thousand 29.5 25.4 22.1
Death Rate/Thousand 9.8 8.4 7.2
Population 84.4 Crore 102.8 Crore 121 Crore
Sex Ratio 927/thousand males 933/thousand males 940/thousand males
Rural Population 74.3 % 72.2 % 67.74 %
Urban Population 25.7 % 27.8 % 31.16 %
Literacy Rate 52.21 % 64.84 % 74.40 %
Male Literacy Rate 64.13 % 75.26 % 82.00 %
Female Literacy Rate 39.29 % 53.67 % 65.25 %



  1. 1.   Census of India 2011
  2. 2.   Economic survey –various numbers, census 2011
  3. 3.   Misra and puri-“Indian Economy”
  4. 4.   S.R. Keshava-“ Economics”
  5. 5.   A.N.Agarwal;- “Economics of development and planning”
  6. 6.   Krishnamurthy hosabeedu; “Economic development of India”


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