Preamble Test Topic 1 2014 Batch



 The   Preamble  summarises  the  aims  and  objects  of   our Constitution. It runs as follows :

“We  the  people  of  India,  having  solemnly resolved   to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens (the words secular  and socialist were inserted by the 42nd amendment)

Justice Social, Economic and Political;

Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

Equality  of status and of opportunity and to  promote  among them all

Fraternity  assuring  the dignity of the individual  and  the unity and integrity of the nation.

In  our Constituent Assembly this 26th day of November  1949,do hereby adopt, enact and give to ourselves this Constitution.”

The Preamble’s importance and utility has been pointed out in several decisions of our supreme court. Though not enforceable  by a  court  of law, it seeks to establish and promote and  aids  the legal  interpretation of the Constitution, where the  language  is found to be ambiguous. Justice M.Hidayatullah aptly described  the Preamble as the soul of the Constitution.

Independent  and  Sovereign : The Constitution of  India  was brought  into  existence  by the people  of  India  through  their representatives  assembled  in a  sovereign  Constituent  Assembly which  was  competent  to determine the political  future  of  the country in any manner it liked. The words “We the people…..enact and  give unto ourselves the Constitution” declares  the  ultimate sovereignty  of  the  people and the Constitution  rests  on  that authority.

Republic  :  The  Preamble declares that the  source  of  all     authority under the Constitution is the people of India and  there is  no  subordination to any external  authority.  While  Pakistan remained  a British dominion till 1956 India became a Republic  in 1949.

Sovereignty not inconsistent with membership of the commonwealth:

When  the Constitution came into force in 1950,  the  British Crown  ceased to have any legal or Constitutional  authority  over India.  But though India declared herself a Republic she  did  not sever  all ties with the Commonwealth. India’s decision to  adhere to the Commonwealth without acknowledging allegiance to the  Crown converted the British Commonwealth – a relic of imperialism into a free  association of independent nations. Nehru asserted  in  1949 “this  voluntary association of India with the  Commonwealth  does     not  affect  her  sovereignty and it would be  open  to  India  to terminate it at any time she finds it not useful.”

Promotion  of  International  Peace  :  Article  51  of   the Constitution   declares   that  the  state   shall(a) promote international peace and security (b) maintain just and  honourable relations  (c)  foster respect for international law  and  treaty obligations (d) encourage settlement of international disputes  by arbitration.

Thus the fraternity professed in the Preamble is not confined to  national territory but is ready to overflow them to reach  the loftier ideal of universal brotherhood. India’s Constitution  does not  support isolationism. India’s sovereignty is consistent  with the concept of “one world” international peace and amity.

Democracy  :  The picture of a democracy which  the  Preamble     envisages is democratic not only from the political but also  from the social stand point. It envisages a democratic society  infused with the spirit of justice, equality and fraternity.

The democracy envisaged is a REPRESENTATIVE democracy and  in     our  Constitution there are no agencies of direct control  by  the people  such  as initiative or referendum. People  exercise  their sovereignty  through a Parliament at the Centre and a  legislature in  each  state elected on adult franchise and to which  the  real executive,  the Council of Ministers shall be responsible.  Though there shall be an elected President at the head of the Union and a Governor  acting  as the President’s nominee at the head  of  each     state, neither of them can exercise any political function without the  advice  of the Council of Ministers. But though there  is  no direct  participation of all citizens in the  administration,  the Constitution  holds out equality to all citizens in the choice  of their representatives who are to run the government machinery.

Government  of,  by  and  for the People :  The  ideal  of  a democratic  republic  enshrined in the preamble can  be  explained with reference to the adoption of universal suffrage and  complete equality  between  sexes  not  only before law  but  also  in  the political sphere. Universal adult franchise was accepted with this end in view – ONE MAN – ONE VOTE.

The   offering  of  equal  opportunity  to  men   and   women irrespective  of  caste or creed in public  employment  implements this democratic ideal. The treatment of minorities brings out that the  philosophy  underlying  the Constitution has  not  been  over looked  by  those  in power. The inclusion of  Muslim  members  as Ministers  of  the  Union  and states and  in  the  supreme  court demonstrate  that those working the constitution have  not  missed its  true spirit, viz. every citizen must regard this  country  as his own.

DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY : That this Democratic Republic stands for the  good  of all people is embodied in the concept of  a  welfare state  which  inspires  the  Directive  principles.  The  economic justice  assured  by the Preamble can hardly be  achieved  if  the democracy  envisaged  by  the  Constitution  were  confined  to  a political democracy. `Political democracy is by itself not enough; it  may  be  used  to obtain a  gradually  increasing  measure  of economic democracy; equality and the spread of good things of life to others’. (Nehru)

ECONOMIC JUSTICE : The banishment of poverty by an  equitable     distribution  of  wealth amongst all who  contribute  towards  its production  is  the  aim of the state. Economic  justice  will  be ensured when this goal is reached.

LIBERTY  :  Democracy cannot be  established  unless  certain minimal  rights,  essential  for a free  civilised  existence  are  assured  to  all.  The  Preamble mentions  these  as  `freedom  ofthought,  expression, belief, faith and worship’. Guaranteeing  of certain rights to each individual would be meaningless unless  all inequality  is  banished  from  the  social  structure  and   each individual  is assured of equality of status and  opportunity  for the development of the best in him.

EQUALITY  :  The  object  is  secured  in  the  body  of  the Constitution  by making illegal , all forms of  discrimination  by the  State  between citizen and citizen simply on the  grounds  of religion,  caste, sex, etc. and by throwing open public places  to allcitizens;  abolishing  untouchability;  abolishing titles; equality before law, equal pay for equal work for men and women.

FROM  SOCIALISTIC PATTERN OF SOCIETY TO SOCIALISM : The  goal envisaged  by the Constitution is that of a Welfare state and  the establishment  of  a socialistic pattern of  society.  The  Swaran Singh  Committee  was of this view and the trend has been  from  a socialistic  pattern  to  a  socialist state  which  is  not  only bringing industries and private enterprises under state  ownership and management but also itself carrying on trade and business as a state function. In recent times however, it has been realised that the adoption of Socialistic measures had strengthened the economic base  of  the  country  and that a  certain  measure  of  economic liberalisation  can  therefore  be  allowed.  Accordingly  several measures of liberalisation have been adopted.

NEED  FOR UNITY AND INTEGRITY OF THE NATION :  Unity  amongst the  inhabitants  of this vast sub-continent torn as  under  by  a multitude  of problems and fissiparious tendencies was  the  first requisite  for maintaining independence of the country as well  as to  make the experiment of democracy successful. But  neither  the integration  of people nor a democratic political system could  be ensured  without infusing a spirit of brotherhood among people  of different races.

FRATERNITY : Cherished by the framers of the Constitution  it  will  be achieved not only by the abolition of untouchability  but also  by  abolition of local or provincial  anti-social  feelings. Article  1  of  the Declaration of Human Rights  says  `All  human beings  are born free and equal in dignity and rights  and  should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.’ The  Preamble reflects this spirit of brotherhood.

A  SECULAR STATE : The unity and fraternity of the people  of India  has  to be achieved by enshrining the ideal  of  a  secular state which means that the state protects all religions and  there is  no  state  religion.  Liberty of  belief,  faith  and  worship promised  in  the  Preamble is implemented  by  incorporating  the fundamental  rights  of  all  citizens  relating  to  freedom of religion.

DIGNITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL : The Preamble assures the  dignity of  the  individual.  The Constitution seeks to  achieve  this  by guaranteeing  equal  fundamental  rights  to  all.  A  number   of directives  (in Part IV) exhort the state to shape all its  social and  economic policies so that all citizens have the right  to  an adequate  means  of livelihood and just and humane  conditions  of work.

Combining  the  ideals  of  political,  social  and  economic democracy  with  that  of liberty,  equality  and  fraternity  the Preamble  seeks to establish what Gandhiji described as the  India of My Dreams `an India in which the poorest shall feel that it  is their  country  in whose making they have an effective  voice;  in which all communities live in perfect harmony; in which there  can be no room for the curse of untouchability or intoxicating  drinks and drugs and in which women will enjoy the same rights as men.’

An Objective Type  test will be held on this in the Class. Hence study this topic carefully. In the Main exam also expect a short note question on this topic. It is good to memorize the Preamble. Note in Particular the changes introduced in the Preamble. You can ask questions on any area.

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