Important Functional Principles of Organization
Luther gullick and Urwick claim that there are some general principles that guides the functioning of the organization. Herbert Simon criticized that the general principles of organization are nothing but proverbs. L.D. White on the other hand felt that they are only working rules which is widely experienced across all the organizations and seem to have validated over a period of time. Therefore, there is no consensus among experts on the question whether there are some general principles of administration. Nevertheless, student of public administration cannot afford to ignore the significance of some important principles like hierarchy, control, coordination and others that are briefly discussed below.
In administration, the process of achieving the goals of the organization requires the division of jobs into various functional units. The units are further divided into sub units until the base order. This is called hierarchical principle. There are three important features that govern the hierarchical principle. They are a) The entire administrative functions of the organization is divided into successive units or sub units b) These units are organized in pyramidical form, concentration of power in the central authority at the top and authority getting decentralized as the organization widens towards the base c) The authority, command and control in the organization descends from the top step by step towards the bottom. Thus the general rule that applies according to the hierarchical principle is that the authority delegated to any functionary should be commensurate with the responsibility imposed on him. Once the administrative activity is classified on the basis of position classification according to hierarchical principle, it has to be coordinated in both time and space. In administration work needs to be coordinated due to its very complexity. The work has necessarily to be subdivided into various departments. There has to be a lot of inter-dependence and inevitable overlapping of functions. Therefore, every subunits’ actions needs coordination. Coordination means to bring harmony and consistency in the actions of persons working towards a common goal. In any organization theoretically speaking, the entire authority is vested in the head of the organization. Practically, to execute the work, head of the organization delegate their functions or part of their functions to their subordinates which is called as principle of delegation. Only by such chain of delegation can any large organization functions effectively. Delegation involves grant or conferment of authority by a superior to his subordinates for performance of particular functions. This function is called as principle of decentralization. Delegation enables distribution of functions among the different functionaries of the organization. The organization is therefore, able to handle a large volume of work in an orderly fashion. All these functional principles are depending on one more important factor that is principle of control. Effective control procedures should be enforced in organization. Such procedures can go a long way in creating climate suitable for delegation in the organization. These procedures create confidence in the superior that they can delegate their functions without fear of losing control. The subordinates also know the expectations of the organization from them. They would accordingly be expected to perform better to meet these expectations. All these are in turn related to factors like discipline, morale and motivational factors in the organization. Thus the organization designed with these general principles will prove effective for the sound structure of the organization.
Discuss the merits and demerits of the pyramidical structural design and horizontal structural design of the organization.
Dr. Anita Prasanna M.A. Ph.D is available for consultation through the Institute