128. Scientific Method and Research Methodology

Scientific method and research methodology:

The advance learner’s dictionary of current English lays down the meaning of research as “A careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge”.

According to Clifford woody –research comprises defining and redefining problem, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions, collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.

For a clear perception of the term research one should know the meaning of scientific method. The two terms research and meaning and scientific method are closely related. Research as we have already stated, can be termed as “an inquiry into the nature of the reasons  for and the consequences of any particular set of circumstances, whether these circumstances are experimentally controlled or recorded just as they occur and we can explain ‘scientific method as, pursuit of truth as determined by logical consideration .the ideal of science is to achieve a systematic interrelation of facts, scientific method attempts to achieve this ideal by experimentation ,observation, logical arguments from accepted postulates and a combination of these three in varying proportions. Accordingly, scientific method implies an objective, logical and systematic method, i.e., a method free from personal bias or prejudice, a method to ascertain demonstrable qualities of a phenomenon capable of being verified,a method wherein the researcher is guided by the rules of logical reasoning ,a method wherein the investigation proceeds in an orderly manner and a method that implies internal consistency.

Research methods and methodology:

It seems appropriate at this juncture to explain the difference between research method and research methodology .research method may be understood as all those method/techniques that are used for conduction of research. Research methods or techniques, thus, refer to the methods the researcher use in performing research operations in other word, all those method which are used by the researcher during the course of studying his research problem are termed as research methods.

Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem; it may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research method or techniques but also methodology. We can say that research methodology has many dimension and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. Thus when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research method but also consider the logic behind the method we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or techniques and why we are not using others so that research result are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others.

Give your answer about 200 words

Q.1) Briefly describe the different steps involved in a research process.

Q.2) Explain the signification of research in modern times.

Q.3) Write a comprehensive note on the –“Task of defining a research problem”.


Dr.Chhaya Dubey Ph.D. Dr. Chaya is available for consultation through the Administrator Prof. B.R.A.Rao


3 thoughts on “128. Scientific Method and Research Methodology

  1. Scientific Method and Research Methodology
    1) As L.V Redman and A.V.H. Mory define Research as a systematised effort to gain new knowledge.
    In sociology, Sociologists studies human society and its relationships. To conduct such researches,
    it requires to follow systematic steps.
    These steps are listed below:-
    1) Selection of topic. Here a researcher has to select a field over which he would like to do search
    2) Define the problem in detail, specifying exactly what it wants.
    3) Conduct pre-review on the topic and try to collect what is already known.
    4) Postulate hypothesis and define parameters to relate it.
    5) Choose a research method. Choosing research method should be based on the problem.
    6) Collection of data using research method.
    7) Analysing of data
    8) Publicising and allowing people to review it.

    2) Research is very important in modern time. It servers academic and non academic purposes.
    Importance of research is listed below:-
    1) Research is essential to diffuse knowledge and expand its horizon.
    2) Research helps us to verify or disapprove, confirm or reject, modify and re-assert the existing theories and to establish new one.
    3) Research provides practical clues, to understand measures that lead to improvement, change and progress.
    4) Research by probing into the perplexing problems, provides new insight regarding their nature and magnitude.
    5) Research has commercial importance.
    6) It provides data which can be used to make policies, plans and programmes.
    7) It has educational importance
    8) Research motivates interdisciplinary studies.

    3) As per C.R. Kothari, a research problem, in general, refer to some difficulty which a researcher experience in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. Once researcher has selected a problem, the next step is to define the problem. Define the problem is one of the most important part of the research. It will enable the researcher to answer questions such as what data to be collected? What characteristics of data are relevant and needed to be studied? What relations are to be explored? What techniques to be used for the purpose? and other similar questions.

    Steps involved in defining problem
    1) Statement of the problem in a general way: Here researcher should state the problem in a broad general way, keeping in view either some practical concern or some scientific or Intellectual interest. He must immense himself thoroughly in the subject matter concerning which he wishes to pose a problem. He should see guidance of a guide.
    2) Understanding the nature of the problem: It is important to understand its origin and nature clearly.
    3) Surveying the available literature: All available literature concerning the problem at hand must necessarily be surveyed and examined before a definition of the research problem is given.
    4) Developing the ideas through discussion: Discussion often produces useful information. Various new ideas develop while discussion.
    5) Rephrasing the research problem: In this, researcher must sit to rephrase the research problem into a working proportion.

    Other then above, we should also be observed while defining a problem.
    i) Technical terms and words or phrases, with special meanings used in the statement of the problem, should be clearly defined.
    ii) Basic assumption or postulates related to the research problem should be clearly stated
    iii) A straight forward statement of the value of the investigation should be provided.
    iv)The suitability of the time-period and the sources of data available must also be considered by the researcher in defining the problem.
    v) The scope of the investigation or the limits within which the problem is to be studied must be mentioned explicitly in defining a research problem.

    –Source for third ans: Research Methodology: Methods and techniques by C.R. Kothari

  2. Ravi,you should read question carefully and answer to the point.In third point you have mentioned ‘Kothari’s’ view ,that explanation denotes research methodology.Contents are good,try to write in your own sentences.give your answer in 200 words.

  3. Q1. Research is defined as the “The systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.” So to achieve this, following Research process is followed.
     Defining the Problem
    Defining a problem in sociological research helps identify a research question that helps carry out the first steps of the research process. For example: If the research is on the topic “Intelligence in different regions”. We need to define the term Intelligence, it cannot be directly quantified. We can operationalize intelligence in various ways. For instance, we might administer an IQ test, which uses specific types of questions and scoring processes to give a quantitative measure of intelligence.
     Reviewing the Literature
    Sociological researchers review previous work done in their subject of research and include this literature review in present research work
     Formulating the Hypothesis
    Formulating a hypothesis helps by defining an initial explanation to be tested in the research process
     Determining the Research Design
    Research design encompasses the methodology and procedure involved to solve different sociological questions.
     Defining the Sample and Collecting Data
    Defining the sample and collecting data are key parts of empirical research, whether the observations will be statistical or ethnographic.
     Analyzing Data and Growing Conclusions
    Sociological data analysis is a process designed to produce patterns, the validity of which can be influenced by a number of factors. While drawing conclusion, there should be no personal opinion, all data are put according to the collected data only.
     Preparing the Research Report
    Sociological research is presented with a literature review, an overview of the methodology, analysis and findings, and conclusions.

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